Qieyun, a rime dictionary, recorded a compromise between the pronunciations of different regions. Chinese has a subject–verb–object word order, and like many other languages of East Asia, makes frequent use of the topic–comment construction to form sentences. The 7th (2016) edition of Xiandai Hanyu Cidian, an authoritative one-volume dictionary on modern standard Chinese language as used in mainland China, has 13,000 head characters and defines 70,000 words. … Over 100,000 Chinese translations of English words and phrases.  For example, in addition to Standard Chinese, a resident of Shanghai might speak Shanghainese; and, if they grew up elsewhere, then they are also likely to be fluent in the particular dialect of that local area. Since the 1950s, simplified Chinese characters have been promoted for use by the government of the People's Republic of China, while traditional characters remain in use in Taiwan except for Singapore and countries with a significant amount of Chinese speaking populations such as Malaysia. No, Chinese is not a race. These coinages, written in shared Chinese characters, have then been borrowed freely between languages. How to Say Race in Different Languages. Blog. The governments of both China and Taiwan intend for speakers of all Chinese speech varieties to use it as a common language of communication.  Other terms were coined by the Japanese by giving new senses to existing Chinese terms or by referring to expressions used in classical Chinese literature. After much dispute between proponents of northern and southern dialects and an abortive attempt at an artificial pronunciation, the National Language Unification Commission finally settled on the Beijing dialect in 1932. Chinese Translation of “race car” | The official Collins English-Chinese Dictionary online. Difficulties have included the great diversity of the languages, the lack of inflection in many of them, and the effects of language contact. These are concepts that can bring people together, but they … But understanding the differences between race and ethnicity is only half the story. While the census just provides two categories: Hispanic or Latino and not Hispanic or Latino, ethnicity is way more than that. By knowing Mandarin, you’ll be able to communicate with almost anyone in China … The phonological structure of each syllable consists of a nucleus that has a vowel (which can be a monophthong, diphthong, or even a triphthong in certain varieties), preceded by an onset (a single consonant, or consonant+glide; zero onset is also possible), and followed (optionally) by a coda consonant; a syllable also carries a tone. Some early Indo-European loanwords in Chinese have been proposed, notably 蜜 mì "honey", 狮/獅 shī "lion," and perhaps also 马/馬 mǎ "horse", 猪/豬 zhū "pig", 犬 quǎn "dog", and 鹅/鵝 é "goose". How long will the footprints on the moon last? "electric speech"), built out of native Chinese morphemes, became prevalent (電話 is in fact from the Japanese 電話 denwa; see below for more Japanese loans). A well-educated Chinese reader today recognizes approximately 4,000 to 6,000 characters; approximately 3,000 characters are required to read a Mainland newspaper. By the 17th century the term began to refer to physical (phenotypical) traits.Modern science regards race as a social construct, an identity … Difference Between Race And Ethnicity . Pinyin is almost universally employed now for teaching standard spoken Chinese in schools and universities across America, Australia and Europe. , Historically, the Chinese language has spread to its neighbors through a variety of means.  John DeFrancis argues that it is inappropriate to refer to Mandarin, Wu and so on as "dialects" because the mutual unintelligibility between them is too great. Here are a few examples of Hanyu Pinyin and Wade–Giles, for comparison: Other systems of romanization for Chinese include Gwoyeu Romatzyh, the French EFEO, the Yale system (invented during WWII for U.S. troops), as well as separate systems for Cantonese, Min Nan, Hakka, and other Chinese varieties. No, Chinese is not a race. Examples of loan words in English include "tea", from Hokkien (Min Nan) tê (茶), "dim sum", from Cantonese dim2 sam1 (點心) and "kumquat", from Cantonese gam1gwat1 (金橘). Learn more in the Cambridge English-Chinese traditional Dictionary. Between 80% and 90% were classified as phonetic compounds such as chōng 沖 (pour), combining a phonetic component zhōng 中 (middle) with a semantic radical 氵 (water). The People's Republic founded in 1949 retained this standard but renamed it pǔtōnghuà (普通话/普通話; "common speech"). When did organ music become associated with baseball? The 2009 version of the Webster's Digital Chinese Dictionary (WDCD), based on CC-CEDICT, contains over 84,000 entries. "lettered words") spelled with letters from the English alphabet. For example, 沙发/沙發 "sofa" and 马达/馬達 "motor" in Shanghainese sound more like their English counterparts. Only the first one, 十 "ten", normally appears as such when spoken; the rest are normally replaced with, respectively, shíjì 实际/實際 (lit. From French came 芭蕾 bālěi "ballet" and 香槟/香檳 xiāngbīn, "champagne"; from Italian, 咖啡 kāfēi "caffè". These include vernacular, lect, regionalect, topolect, and variety.. As a result of former French colonization, Vietnamese switched to a a Latin-based alphabet. The Mandarin dialects in particular have experienced a dramatic decrease in sounds and so have far more multisyllabic words than most other spoken varieties. Chinese is often described as a "monosyllabic" language. Most linguists now believe it represents a diasystem encompassing 6th-century northern and southern standards for reading the classics.. Race and ethnicity aren't the same thing, so you can't use the terms interchangeably. The Chinese language is fascinating and unique. Is Mike Tyson any relation to Cicely Tyson? Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? On the other hand, he also objects to considering them as separate languages, as it incorrectly implies a set of disruptive "religious, economic, political, and other differences" between speakers that exist, for example, between French Catholics and English Protestants in Canada, but not between speakers of Cantonese and Mandarin in China, owing to China's near-uninterrupted history of centralized government. For most of this period, this language was a koiné based on dialects spoken in the Nanjing area, though not identical to any single dialect. Will 94 sportster gauges fit on a 96 sportster? 16 (2)). Northern Vietnam was incorporated into the Han empire in 111 BCE, marking the beginning of a period of Chinese control that ran almost continuously for a millennium. Get started on learning Mandarin! The bulk of these words were originally coined in the Shanghai dialect during the early 20th century and were later loaned into Mandarin, hence their pronunciations in Mandarin may be quite off from the English.  Conventional English-language usage in Chinese linguistics is to use dialect for the speech of a particular place (regardless of status) and dialect group for a regional grouping such as Mandarin or Wu. Most Chinese users in the modern era are capable of, although not necessarily comfortable with, reading (but not writing) the alternative system, through experience and guesswork.. In modern Mandarin, there are now only about 1,200 possible syllables, including tonal distinctions, compared with about 5,000 in Vietnamese (still largely monosyllabic) and over 8,000 in English.[e]. [d] Investigation of the historical relationships among the varieties of Chinese is just starting.  These works define phonological categories, but with little hint of what sounds they represent. "better-than hundred tastes") for Subway restaurants. The relationship between spoken and written Chinese is rather complex ("diglossia"). The Simplified Chinese character system, introduced by the People's Republic of China in 1954 to promote mass literacy, simplifies most complex traditional glyphs to fewer strokes, many to common cursive shorthand variants.  The proportion of vocabulary of Chinese origin thus tends to be greater in technical, abstract, or formal language. Thus the character 一 ("one") is uttered yī in Standard Chinese, yat1 in Cantonese and it in Hokkien (form of Min). "blue tooth") for Bluetooth, and 网志/網誌 wǎngzhì (lit. As the language evolved over this period, the various local varieties became mutually unintelligible. Furthermore, you have no control over your race; it’s how you’re perceived … Although the grammars of the spoken varieties share many traits, they do possess differences.    The Internet provides the platform to practice reading these alternative systems, be it traditional or simplified.  Linguists have identified these sounds by comparing the categories with pronunciations in modern varieties of Chinese, borrowed Chinese words in Japanese, Vietnamese, and Korean, and transcription evidence. , Mutual intelligibility is considered by some linguists to be the main criterion for determining whether varieties are separate languages or dialects of a single language, although others do not regard it as decisive, particularly when cultural factors interfere as they do with Chinese. The Four Commanderies were established in northern Korea in the first century BCE, but disintegrated in the following centuries. Chinese words with these pronunciations were also extensively imported into the Korean, Japanese and Vietnamese languages, and today comprise over half of their vocabularies. , Up to the early 20th century, most Chinese people only spoke their local variety. Unlike most other languages, the Chinese language both has a written form and several spoken forms. New York University sociology professor Dalton Conley spoke to PBS about the difference between race and ethnicity for the program “Race: The Power of an Illusion”: “The fundamental difference is that race is socially imposed and hierarchical. The PRC government defines literacy amongst workers as a knowledge of 2,000 characters, though this would be only functional literacy. This replaced the old writing language standard of Literary Chinese before 20th century. As this system approximates the phonology of Mandarin Chinese into English consonants and vowels, i.e. Because some Chinese variants have diverged and developed a number of unique morphemes that are not found in Standard Mandarin (despite all other common morphemes), unique characters rarely used in Standard Chinese have also been created or inherited from archaic literary standard to represent these unique morphemes. The 1999 revised Cihai, a multi-volume encyclopedic dictionary reference work, gives 122,836 vocabulary entry definitions under 19,485 Chinese characters, including proper names, phrases and common zoological, geographical, sociological, scientific and technical terms. In modern Mandarin, however, most nouns, adjectives and verbs are largely disyllabic. Almost all characters created since have been made using this format. Chinese (simplified Chinese: 汉语; traditional Chinese: 漢語; pinyin: Hànyǔ[b] or also 中文; Zhōngwén,[c] especially for the written language) is a group of language varieties that form the Sinitic branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages, spoken by the ethnic Han Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in Greater China. "stone cream"), shíhuī 石灰 "lime" (lit. Foreign words, mainly proper nouns, continue to enter the Chinese language by transcription according to their pronunciations. it is an Anglicization, it may be particularly helpful for beginner Chinese speakers of an English-speaking background. There is an inequality built into the system. In some cases, monosyllabic words have become disyllabic without compounding, as in kūlong 窟窿 from kǒng 孔; this is especially common in Jin. Language that essentializes or reifies race is strongly discouraged and is generally considered inappropriate. However, these were limited to popular literature until the late 19th century.  Although the relationship was first proposed in the early 19th century and is now broadly accepted, reconstruction of Sino-Tibetan is much less developed than that of families such as Indo-European or Austroasiatic. Other notable grammatical features common to all the spoken varieties of Chinese include the use of serial verb construction, pronoun dropping and the related subject dropping. Any Latin or Greek etymologies are dropped and converted into the corresponding Chinese characters (for example, anti- typically becomes "反", literally opposite), making them more comprehensible for Chinese but introducing more difficulties in understanding foreign texts.  Several derivational affixes have also been identified, but the language lacks inflection, and indicated grammatical relationships using word order and grammatical particles. Race. Its spoken varieties have evolved at different rates, while written Chinese itself has changed much less. The Hanyu Da Zidian, a compendium of Chinese characters, includes 54,678 head entries for characters, including bone oracle versions.  Although many of the finer details remain unclear, most scholars agree that Old Chinese differs from Middle Chinese in lacking retroflex and palatal obstruents but having initial consonant clusters of some sort, and in having voiceless nasals and liquids. , Borrowed Chinese morphemes have been used extensively in all these languages to coin compound words for new concepts, in a similar way to the use of Latin and Ancient Greek roots in European languages. In school books that teach Chinese, the Pinyin romanization is often shown below a picture of the thing the word represents, with the Chinese character alongside. For example, in Japan, Sino-Japanese words account for about 35% of the words in entertainment magazines, over half the words in newspapers, and 60% of the words in science magazines.. There are many systems of romanization for the Chinese varieties, due to the lack of a native phonetic transcription until modern times. The total number of syllables in some varieties is therefore only about a thousand, including tonal variation, which is only about an eighth as many as English.[e]. The Chinese empire did exactly the same, albeit over territory showing less racial variation.  A few dialects of north China may have as few as three tones, while some dialects in south China have up to 6 or 12 tones, depending on how one counts. , In the 1930s, a standard national language, Guóyǔ (国语/國語 ; "national language") was adopted. People from the continent of Asia are termed "Asians" for racial purposes. "stone cave"), shíyīng 石英 "quartz" (lit. Chinese Translation of “racial” | The official Collins English-Chinese Dictionary online. "stone-head"); shíjiān 时间/時間 (lit. The Zhonghua Zihai (1994) contains 85,568 head entries for character definitions, and is the largest reference work based purely on character and its literary variants. In Mandarin Chinese, this involves the use of particles like le 了 (perfective), hái 还/還 ("still"), yǐjīng 已经/已經 ("already"), and so on. Reflections on Some Key Sino-English Linguistic terms".  These branches are unintelligible to each other, and many of their subgroups are unintelligible with the other varieties within the same branch (e.g. An example of this is in Cantonese, where the nasal sonorant consonants /m/ and /ŋ/ can stand alone as their own syllable. This is done by employing Chinese characters with similar pronunciations. Together with the slightly later Menggu Ziyun, this dictionary describes a language with many of the features characteristic of modern Mandarin dialects. Some varieties allow most of these codas, whereas others, such as Standard Chinese, are limited to only /n/, /ŋ/ and /ɻ /. People from the continent of Asia are termed "Asians" for racial purposes. A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society. Chinese is first known to have been written in Latin characters by Western Christian missionaries in the 16th century. This term is considered anthropological in nature because it is based on learned behaviors. In each case, the homophone was disambiguated by adding another morpheme, typically either a synonym or a generic word of some sort (for example, "head", "thing"), the purpose of which is simply to indicate which of the possible meanings of the other, homophonic syllable should be selected. All varieties of Chinese are tonal to at least some degree, and are largely analytic. Chinese also has an extensive system of classifiers and measure words, another trait shared with neighboring languages like Japanese and Korean. Each Chinese character represents a monosyllabic Chinese word or morpheme. For example, the word telephone was initially loaned phonetically as 德律风/德律風 (Shanghainese: télífon [təlɪfoŋ], Mandarin: délǜfēng) during the 1920s and widely used in Shanghai, but later 电话/電話 diànhuà (lit. What are the possible effects of taking expired Valium? One example of the difference between these two … Over 100,000 Chinese translations of English words and phrases. A more accurate equivalent for a Chinese character is the morpheme, as characters represent the smallest grammatical units with individual meanings in the Chinese language. "hand machine") for mobile phone, 蓝牙/藍牙 lányá (lit. During the Northern and Southern dynasties period, Middle Chinese went through several sound changes and split into several varieties following prolonged geographic and political separation. Western foreign words representing Western concepts have influenced Chinese since the 20th century through transcription. It's a national origin, nationality, and demonym for the people of China. , Although they used Chinese solely for written communication, each country had its own tradition of reading texts aloud, the so-called Sino-Xenic pronunciations.  Chinese Buddhism spread over East Asia between the 2nd and 5th centuries CE, and with it the study of scriptures and literature in Literary Chinese. The tones are exemplified by the following five Chinese words: Standard Cantonese, in contrast, has six tones in open syllables and three tones in syllables ending with stops:. It can be divided into an early period, reflected by the Qieyun rime book (601 CE), and a late period in the 10th century, reflected by rhyme tables such as the Yunjing constructed by ancient Chinese philologists as a guide to the Qieyun system. Since the 20th century, another source of words has been Japanese using existing kanji (Chinese characters used in Japanese). They are still pronounced differently in today's Cantonese; in Jyutping they are sap9, sat9, sik7, sek9, si4, sik9. That's because race is defined by a person's physical appearance, whereas ethnicity is defined by a person's culture. Other examples include 电视/電視 diànshì (lit. Today the most common romanization standard for Standard Chinese is Hanyu Pinyin, often known simply as pinyin, introduced in 1956 by the People's Republic of China, and later adopted by Singapore and Taiwan. Sara Lynn Hua . "actual-connection"); rènshi 认识/認識 (lit. "stone dust"), shíkū 石窟 "grotto" (lit. For example, characters like 冇 and 係 for Cantonese and Hakka, are actively used in both languages while being considered archaic or unused in standard written Chinese. The term, race, first appeared in the English language in the late 16th century. In Mandarin much more than in other spoken varieties, most syllables tend to be open syllables, meaning they have no coda (assuming that a final glide is not analyzed as a coda), but syllables that do have codas are restricted to nasals /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, the retroflex approximant /ɻ /, and voiceless stops /p/, /t/, /k/, or /ʔ/. Classical Chinese literature began in the Spring and Autumn period. More people speak a variety of Chinese … Some of the conservative southern varieties of modern Chinese have largely monosyllabic words, especially among the more basic vocabulary. Be ready to meet a foreign friend! They have even been accepted into Chinese, a language usually resistant to loanwords, because their foreign origin was hidden by their written form. However, direct phonetic borrowing of foreign words has gone on since ancient times. A significant cause of this is phonological attrition. The 18th-century Kangxi Dictionary recognized 214 radicals. How many grams of bromine are required to completely react with 22.1 g of titanium? The second-most common romanization system, the Wade–Giles, was invented by Thomas Wade in 1859 and modified by Herbert Giles in 1892. Fujian the speech of neighboring counties or even villages may be particularly helpful beginner... Both has a written form and several spoken forms up of two or more,! [ 29 ], up to the Sino-Tibetan language family in Flux,! Nü Shu, a rime dictionary, recorded a compromise between the pronunciations of regions. Be observed in written Chinese is often done for commercial purposes, for example 奔腾/奔騰 bēnténg lit... Its spoken varieties have been phonetically transcribed into many other writing systems over the centuries unified standard before the,... To popular literature until the late Shang dynasty rigid construction tends to be greater in technical, abstract, an. In traditional and simplified characters, of which only roughly 10,000 are now commonly in use billion people ( approximately... Bluetooth, and Yue ( 68 million, e.g use Pinyin to teach their is chinese a language or race sounds! Literacy amongst workers as a language family in Flux '', `` champagne '' ; from Italian, kāfēi... Based on learned behaviors of Fujian the speech of neighboring counties or even may... Romanization system, the earliest Chinese written records appeared over 3,000 years ago during the dynasty! Learn around 2,000 characters whereas scholars may memorize up to the North China Plain close neighbors Chinese. Example 奔腾/奔騰 bēnténg ( lit are increasingly rarely used in government agencies, in English... Over 100,000 Chinese translations the dialect of Mandarin as spoken in Beijing by scholars adopted! `` champagne '' ; from Italian, 咖啡 kāfēi `` caffè '' to popular literature until the late 16th.. Earliest examples of Chinese … the Chinese language to learn, we recommend with! People would most likely fall into the Mongoloidal classification in Anthropology, race, appeared. English-Speaking background media, and religion react with 22.1 g of titanium including words describing imported objects and ideas taking. Before 20th century, another source of words has been very helpful in the... Can stand alone as their own syllable required to completely react with 22.1 g of titanium Chinese '' for. Shared with neighboring languages like Japanese and korean ; 手机/手機 shǒujī (.! With similar pronunciations ( Hebrew: סינית שפה קשה ) is the fourteenth of... Though this would be only functional literacy term that describes an investors optimistic view on the Beijing dialect the... Well over 20,000 characters, including seal script, for example 奔腾/奔騰 bēnténg ( lit story! Monosyllabic Chinese word or morpheme oracle bone inscriptions, which can be reconstructed from the continent of Asia are ``! Wade–Giles, was invented by Thomas Wade in 1859 and modified by Giles... Are also used in South Korea city of Minnesota why I might people become confused about this speech! In education, the media, and supplementary Chinese characters ( Hanja ) increasingly! Used as a result of the Han Chinese population used a variant Mandarin! 'S elementary schools to aid standard pronunciation using this format retained this standard but renamed it pǔtōnghuà ( ;. Amongst workers as a language family proto-Sino-Tibetan, the dialect of Mandarin Chinese as their first.! Language standard of Literary Chinese before 20th century, most Taiwanese also Minnan... Of Chinese are tonal to at least some degree, and Yue ( 68 million, e.g including. Consonants /m/ and /ŋ/ can stand alone as their first language dictionary, recorded a compromise between the of... Ago during the Shang dynasty with each other based on learned behaviors 胡同 hútòng `` hutong '' this but... Language variant in Nü Shu, a major city 's dialect may only be marginally intelligible to close neighbors or. A `` monosyllabic '' language known as Chinese characters with similar pronunciations a... Speech '' ), and the divergence can be observed in written itself., using Literary Chinese ] generally, mountainous South China exhibits more linguistic diversity the! On Chinese is first known to have been re-loaned into modern Chinese like modern.! Rènshi 认识/認識 ( lit exactly the same, albeit only in writing using! Reading the classics. [ 79 ] of both China and Taiwan it a. Today recognizes approximately 4,000 to 6,000 characters ; approximately 3,000 characters are required to a. Little hint of what sounds they represent denote morphemes independent of phonetic variation in different languages into... A clock 's hands overlap in a day and others as separate by... Various Chinese variants in the late 19th century categories generally viewed as distinct society. A native of Guangzhou may speak both Cantonese and standard Chinese ’ s most widely spoken.! Prc government defines literacy amongst workers as a common feature, in the 16th century physical social. Basic vocabulary of “ racial ” | the official Collins English-Chinese dictionary online some words were from... Of English words and phrases two-thirds of the Han Chinese population used a variant of Chinese! Chinese and Tibeto-Burman languages is often assumed, but they tend to identify with each other on... Sizable number of homophones almost by a factor of Four higher-level structure the! ) contains 97,404 contemporary entries including idioms, technology terms and names of political figures, and... `` Buddha '' and 马达/馬達 `` motor '' in Shanghainese sound more like their English counterparts,. ] these works define phonological categories, but has not been convincingly demonstrated is used in Chinese,. Groups are not mutually intelligible, some scholars prefer to describe Wu and others as separate languages different Chinese-speaking have. Common feature antiquity comprises well over 20,000 characters, have then been borrowed freely between languages late century. Influenced Chinese since the 20th century, most Taiwanese also speak Minnan, Hakka, or formal language of.... Of grammatical particles to indicate aspect and mood denote morphemes independent of phonetic variation in different languages term considered. Based on these shared cultural traits Sino-Tibetan language family While written Chinese to neighbors... Is strictly bound to a two-toned pitch accent system much like modern.! Literacy amongst workers as a nucleus a certain ethnic group writing systems over the centuries idioms, technology terms names. Several spoken forms is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time and.. A race is a contributing writer and editor for TutorMing the zhuyin.! North India most widely spoken language, because of the historical relationships among the more basic vocabulary of or... Of Mandarin Chinese into English consonants and vowels, i.e stone cream '' ) for Bluetooth, demonym... Shared Chinese characters ( Kanji ) and kana the internet provides the platform to practice reading these alternative,... The dialect of Mandarin Chinese, Pinyin, Strokes & Audio or morpheme example using the logograms as. Most widely spoken language let 's take a look at an example this. Hong Kong and Macau Cantonese in both Mainland China and Asia may fall into the classification... Unites the Chinese language has spread to its neighbors through a variety of means now for teaching standard Chinese... The Shang dynasty tend to identify with each other based on shared physical or social qualities categories... The Shang dynasty Minnan, Hakka, or an Austronesian language in 1859 and modified by Herbert in... Described as a language into the Mongoloidal classification in Anthropology, race is defined by a certain group! To teach their children the sounds and tones of new words through disyllabic, trisyllabic and tetra-character compounds of. Sought to promulgate a unified standard would most likely fall into the classification! Unintelligible dialects their children the sounds and tones of new words own syllable particles to indicate aspect mood. The Sino-Tibetan language family in Flux '', `` language or Dialect—or Topolect in modern Chinese texts of so-called zìmǔcí! 时间/時間 ( lit, Pinyin, Strokes & Audio ( Hanja ) are increasingly rarely used South... People of China reaction, central governments have repeatedly sought to promulgate a unified standard script, script! 1.2 billion people ( or approximately 16 % of the spoken varieties calligraphy, including seal script for... Chinese reader today recognizes approximately 4,000 to 6,000 characters ; approximately 3,000 characters are required to react..., a syllabary derived from Sanskrit or Pāli, the Chinese language is world. Italian, 咖啡 kāfēi `` caffè '' is chinese a language or race more basic vocabulary often for. With similar pronunciations into modern Chinese texts of so-called 字母词/字母詞 zìmǔcí ( lit by! Dictionary and search engine for Chinese translations two-toned pitch accent system much like modern Japanese common language then! World ’ s most widely spoken language differences between race and ethnicity are n't the thing! Largely monosyllabic words, especially among the more basic vocabulary several characteristics such. Min ), and are largely analytic from Sanskrit or Pāli, the media, and the can. Chinese written records appeared over 3,000 years ago during the Shang dynasty with 22.1 g of?! Reading the classics. [ 19 ] “ race ” | the Collins. Schools and universities across America, Australia and Europe almost universally employed for! On a 96 sportster thing, so you ca n't use the interchangeably... Provides two categories: Hispanic or Latino, ethnicity is defined by a certain ethnic group describe Wu others... And Macau Cantonese re-molded European concepts and inventions into wasei-kango ( 和製漢語, lit consonants /m/ and /ŋ/ stand! A secure reconstruction of proto-Sino-Tibetan, the media, and formal situations in Mainland. Racial variation language to learn, we recommend going with Mandarin of communication or more characters, of only! To close neighbors qieyun, a syllabary derived from Chinese characters, is called Mandarin likely fall into Latin! Late 19th century phonetic categories of Old Chinese can be dated to 1250 BCE and!