The Dutch Malabar (1661–1795) in turn were weakened by their constant battles with Marthanda Varma of the Travancore Royal Family, and were defeated at the Battle of Colachel in 1741, resulting in the complete eclipse of Dutch power in Malabar. [64][65] Ibn Battuta (1342–1347), who visited the city of Kozhikode six times, gives the earliest glimpses of life in the city. Yes, I am going to deliver information about Historical Places of Kerala. In the meantime, Marthanda Varma annexed many smaller northern kingdoms through military conquests, resulting in the rise of Travancore to a position of preeminence in Kerala. Malabar is reminiscent of the word Malanad which means the land of hills. The edifice of the Mattancherry Palace perfectly reflects … Photo Courtesy: Thejas Panarkandy [57] The most powerful kingdom of Kerala during the colonial period, Travancore, was developed through the expansion of Venad by Mahahrajah Marthanda Varma, a member of the Thrippappur branch of the Ay Dynasty who ascended to the throne in the 18th century. The Christians, NSS and Namputhiris and the Congress Party protested, with demonstrations numbering in the tens and hundreds of thousands of people. The term Kerala was first epigraphically recorded as Ketalaputo (Cheras) in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription by emperor Ashoka of Magadha. In the second half of the 12th century, two branches of the Ay Dynasty: Thrippappur and Chirava, merged into the Venad family and established the tradition of designating the ruler of Venad as Chirava Moopan and the heir-apparent as Thrippappur Moopan. New elections in 1959 cost the Communists most of their seats and Congress resumed control. Until the end of the 11th century, it was a small principality in the Ay Kingdom. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2011. [43] However, in the 14th century, Ravi Varma Kulashekhara (1299–1314) of the southern Venad kingdom was able to establish a short-lived supremacy over southern India. "Matriliny, Marxism, and the birth of the communist party in Kerala, 1930-1940. [13] Rock engravings in the Edakkal Caves in Wayanad are thought to date from the early to late Neolithic eras around 5000 BCE. In 1741, Mahé de La Bourdonnais retook the town after a period of occupation by the Marathas. Rise of Travancore Maritime contacts Encyclopædia Britannica. Tamilakam [33][34] The Cochin Jews believe that their ancestors came to the west coast of India as refugees following the destruction of Jerusalem in the first century CE. Al-Biruni (AD 973 - 1048) must have been the first writer to call this state Malabar. [10] However, foreign cultural contacts have assisted this cultural formation. [84], The political alliance have strongly stabilised in such a manner that, with rare exceptions, most of the coalition partners stick their loyalty to the alliance. Due to ideological differences the CPI-ML split into several groups. Roman establishments in the port cities of the region, such as a temple of Augustus and barracks for garrisoned Roman soldiers, are marked in the Tabula Peutingeriana; the only surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus. The author, Robin Jeffry is a Canadian academic who has chronicled Kerala history brilliantly. [1] It was mentioned as one of four independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka's time, the others being the Cholas, Pandyas and Satyaputras. [59] The Venadu King then also was known as Venadu Mooppil Nayar. It is a land of mesmerizing natural beauty. Bekal Fort Veluthat, Kesavan. The Cheras regained control over Kerala in the 9th century until the kingdom was dissolved in the 12th century, after which small autonomous chiefdoms, most notably Venadu, arose. In 1498, Vasco Da Gama established a sea route to Kerala and raised Portuguese settlements, which marked the beginning of the colonial era of Kerala. [48], The inhibitions, caused by a series of Chera-Chola wars in the 11th century, resulted in the decline of foreign trade in Kerala ports. B. Eerdmans Publishing - 2008, Page 285. In the 4th century, the Knanaya Christians migrated from Persia and settled in southern Kodungallur. The contact with Romans might have given rise to small colonies of Jews and Syrian Christians in the chief harbour towns of Kerala. Pristine beaches, wildlife sanctuaries, exotic hill stations and history laden forts complete a mesmerizing experience for tourists. [35][36] Mappila was an honorific title that had been assigned to respected visitors from abroad; and Jewish, Syrian Christian, and Muslim immigration might account for later names of the respective communities: Juda Mappilas, Nasrani Mappilas, and Muslim Mappilas. The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 5 by Erwin Fahlbusch. 332 KB, City : KOZHIKODE In his masterpiece, “The Histories,” he declared at the outset his intention to “prevent the traces of human events from being erased by time.” He then exhaustively detailed the Persian Empire’s expansion and subsequent clash with the city-states of Greece in the 5th century B.C., while also adding in tabloid-worthy asides, such as an allegation that Egyptian women uri… Onam Festival. Wm. After Vasco Da Gama's arrival in Kappad Kozhikode in 1498, the Portuguese began to dominate eastern shipping, and the spice-trade in particular.[70][71][72]. However, its generally agreed that the Samoothiri were originally the Nair chieftains of Eralnadu region of the Later Chera Kingdom and were known as the Eradis. [60] Eralnadu province was situated in the northern parts of present-day Malappuram district and was landlocked by the Valluvanad and Polanadu in the west. He was forced to shift his capital (c. CE 1405) further south. Download : 0 Times0000-00-00 00:00:00, HISTORIANS , The opposition called on Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to seize control of the state government. These two parties have alternating in power since 1982. Cochin Organised expressions of discontent with British rule were not uncommon in Kerala. Buckingham Canal (a small canal between Tangasseri Lighthouse and the cemetery) is situated very close to the Portuguese Cemetery. Foreign tourists such association `` Jawaharlal Nehru to seize control of the Cheras ruled the Malabar... 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